Embodying Charismatic Affect(If): the Example of Bruce Lee
pdf

Abstract views: 232
PDF Downloads: 35

Keywords

Body
Embodiment
Charisma
Affect
Affectif
Intercorpreality
Social Change
Leadership
Bruce Lee
Martial Arts
Celebrity
Bio-Agency
Sensual Solidarities
Allure

How to Cite

Brown, D. (2020). Embodying Charismatic Affect(If): the Example of Bruce Lee. Corpus Mundi, 1(3), 14-52. https://doi.org/10.46539/cmj.v1i3.22

Abstract

While the concept of charisma is widely used in the social sciences, its embodied nature is less thoroughly explored and theorised. This paper revisits the key embodied characteristics of Weber's sociology of charisma and re-interprets these using Shilling's (2005, 2013) umbrella notions of the body as a source and location of and means for society as a way of analysing the idea of the charismatic body as a force for social change. It then draws on a range of embodied concepts to illuminate how charisma is significant channel of infra and inter-corporeal affective interaction between "leaders" and their followers. In particular, Freund's (2009) social synaesthesia and bio-agency, Massumi's (2002) perspective of affect and the moving body, Thrift's (2010) charismatic celebrity, allure and glamour, Mellor and Shilling's (1997) sensual solidarities, and Seyfert's (2012) conception of affectif. To develop and illustrate this perspective of the charismatically affective body in action, the life of film star and martial artist Bruce Lee (1940–1973) is utilised.

https://doi.org/10.46539/cmj.v1i3.22
pdf

References

Aberbach, D. (1996). Charisma in Politics, Religion and the Media: Private Trauma and Public Ideals. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.

Adair-Toteff, C. (2005). Max Weber's charisma. Journal of Classical Sociology, 5(2), 189-204. Doi: 10.1177/1468795X05053491

Adair-Toteff, C. (2014). Max Weber's charismatic prophets. History of the Human Sciences, 27(1), 3–20. Doi: 10.11772F0952695113518212

Ahmed, S. (2008). Imaginary prohibitions: Some preliminary remarks on the founding gestures of the new materialisms. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 15(1), 23–39. Doi: 10.1177/1468795X05053491

Ash, J. (2015). Emotion, space and society, technology and affect: Towards a theory of inorganically organised objects. Emotion, Space and Society, 14, 84-90. Doi: 10.1016/j.emospa.2013.12.017

Brown, D. H. K., Jennings, G., & Leledaki, A. (2008). The changing charismatic status of the performing male body in Asian martial arts films. Sport in Society, 11(2-3), 174-194. Doi: 10.1080/17430430701823414

Brown, D. H. K. & Leledaki, A. (2010). Eastern Movement Forms as Body-Self Transforming Cultural Practices in the West: Towards a Sociological Perspective. Cultural Sociology, 4(1), 123-154. Doi: 10.1177/1749975509356866

Brown, D. H. K. (2011). La concezione weberiana del carisma: l caso delle arti marziali. Religioni e società (71), 42-60.

Brown, D. & Jennings, G. (2011). Body lineage: conceptualizing the transmission of traditional Asian martial arts (in the West). STAPS: Revue Internationale des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique, 32(93, 3), 61-71.

Brown, D. & Jennings, G. (2013). In search of a martial habitus: Identifying core dispositions in Wing Chun and Taijiquan. In R.S. García and D. Spencer (Eds.) Fighting Scholars: Habitus and Ethnographies of Martial Arts and Combat Sports (pp. 33-48). London and New York: Anthem.

Basu, P. & Werbner, H. (1999). Embodying Charisma: Modernity, Locality and the Performance of Emotion in Sufi Cults. London: Routledge.

Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beck, U., Giddens, A. & Lash, S. (1994). Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Traditions and Aesthetics of Modern Social Order. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Berger, P. (1967). The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion. New York: Anchor Books.

Beyer, J. M. (1999). Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 307–330. Doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00019-3

Beyer J. M. & Browning, L. (1999) Transforming an industry in crisis: charisma, routinization, and supportive cultural leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(3), 483-520. Doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00026-0

Blackman, L. (2012). Immaterial Bodies. Affect, Embodiment, Mediation. London: Sage.

Bourdieu, P. (1993). Sociology in Question. London: Sage Publications.

Breihan, T. (2015). The Way of the Dragon Is a stone-cold classic for that one fight alone. The Concourse. Retrieved from: https://theconcourse.deadspin.com/the-way-of-the-dragon-is-a-stone-cold-classic-for-that-1695164125

Bruce Lee Foundation (2019) Retrieved from https://bruceleefoundation.org

Campbell, C. (2007). The Easternization of the West. London: Paradigm.

Csordas, T. J. (1997). Language, Charisma and Creativity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Durkheim, É. ([1915] 2001). The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Oxford: OUP.

Early, G. (1996). Baseball, boxing and the charisma of sport and race. In G. Early, E. Solomon, & L. Wacquant (Eds.) The Charisma of Sport and Race (pp 1-46). Berkeley: University of California.

Elliot, A. (2013). Reinvention. London: Routledge.

Erez, A., Misangyi, V.F., Johnson, D.E., LuPine, M.M. & Halverson, K.C. (2008). Stirring the hearts of followers: Charismatic leadership as the transferal of affect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 602–615. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.602

Feuerbach, L. ([1854] 2014) The Essence of Christianity. New York: Prometheus Books

Freund, P. (2009). Social synaesthesia: Expressive bodies, embodied charisma. Body & Society, 15(4):21-31. Doi: 10.1177/1357034X09347220

Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The Charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 32–58. Doi: 10.5465/amr.1998.192958

Giddens, A. (1971). Capitalism and modern social theory: An analysis of the writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks. London: Lawrence & Wishart.

Harvey, D. (1992). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Howell, J. M (1988). Two faces of charisma: Socialized and personalized leadership in organizations. In J. A. Conger, & R. N. Kanungo (Eds.) Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor In Organizational Effectiveness (pp. 213–236). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Junker A. (2014). Follower agency and charismatic mobilization in Falun Gong. Sociology of Religion, 75(3), 418–441. Doi: 10.1093/socrel/sru021

Joosse P. (2012). The presentation of the charismatic self in everyday life: Reflections on a Canadian new religious movement. Sociology of Religion, 73(2), 174–199. Doi: 10.1093/socrel/srr045

Joosse, P. (2014). Becoming a God: Max Weber and the social construction of charisma. Journal of Classical Sociology, 14(3), 266-283. Doi: 1468795X14536652

Joosse, P. (2017). Max Weber's Disciples: Theorizing the charismatic aristocracy. Sociological Theory, 35(4), 334-358. Doi: 10.1177/0735275117740402

Locke, S. (2004). Charisma and the iron cage: Rationalization, science and scientology. Social Compass, 51(1), 111–131. Doi: 10.11772F0037768604040794

Lee, B. (1975). The Tao of Jeet Kune Do. California: Ohara Publications.

Lee-Cadwell, L. (1989). The Bruce Lee Story. Ohara publications: Santa Clarita, California.

Lewis, I. M. (1996). Religion in Context: Cults and Charisma. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Little, J. (1998). The Art of Expressing the Human Body. Boston: Tuttle Publishing.

Mathiesen, T. (1997). The viewer society: Michel Foucault's `Panopticon' revisited. Theoretical Criminology, 1(2), 215-234. Doi: 10.11772F1362480697001002003

Massumi, B. (2002). Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. London: Duke University Press.

Mellor, P., & Shilling, C. (1997). Re-forming the Body: Religion, Community and Modernity. London: Sage.

Mullan, M. L. (1995). Sport As institutionalized charisma. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 19(3), 285-306. Doi: 10.11772F019372395019003005

Parkin, F. (1982). Max Weber. London: Tavistock Publications.

Polly, M. (2018). Bruce Lee: A Life. London: Simon & Schuster.

Rossen, J. (2015). Bruce Lee: The time Bruce Lee was challenged to a real fight. Mental Floss, 10th August . Retrieved fron http://mentalfloss.com/article/67108/time-bruce-lee-was-challenged-real-fight

Russo, C. (2016). Striking Distance: Bruce Lee and the Dawn of Martial Arts in America. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Scott, D. (2008). China and the International System, 1840-1949: Power, Presence, and Perceptions in a Century of Humiliation. State University of New York Press.

Sennett, R. ([1977] 2002). The Fall of Public Man. London: Penguin.

Seven, R. (1998). Gone but not forgotten -- Along his highway to fame, Bruce Lee changed a humble Seattle grocer's life. Seattle Times, Sunday, July 12. Retrieved from http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19980712&slug=2760597

Seyfert, R. (2012). Beyond personal feelings and collective emotions: towards a theory of social affect. Theory, Culture & Society, 29(6), 27-46. Doi: 10.1177/0263276412438591

Shamir, B. (1995). Social distance and charisma: Theoretical notes and an exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(1), 19-47. Doi: 10.1108/S1479-357120180000009021

Shilling, C. (2013). The Body and Social Theory. (Third Edition). London: Sage.

Shilling, C. (2005). The Body in Culture, Technology And Society. London: Sage.

Shils, E. (1965). Charisma, order, and status. American Sociological Review. 30(2), 199-213. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/2091564

Smith, P. (2000). Culture and charisma: Outline of a theory. Acta Sociologica, 43, 101-111. Doi: 10.1177/000169930004300201

Suzuki, D. T. (2009). The Lankavatara Sutra: A Mahayana Text (Tr. For the first time from the original Sanskrit). Motilal Banarsidass.

Storm, R. K. (2010). Professional team sports and profits—An irreconcilable combination? Systems theoretical observations on the sports business. In U. Wagner, R. K Storm, & J. Hoberman (Eds.) Observing Sport: Modern System Theoretical Approaches (pp. 103–130). Schorndorf: Hofmann-Verlag.

Thomas, B. (1996). Bruce Lee: Fighting Spirit. London: Pan Books.

Thrift, N. (2000). Still life in nearly present time: The object of nature. Body & Society, 6(3-4), 34-57. Doi: 10.1177/1357034X00006003003

Thrift, N. (2008). Non-Representational Theory: Space, Politics and Affect. London: Routledge.

Thrift, N. (2010). Understanding the material practices of glamour. In G. Mamssa, & G. J. Seigworth (Eds.) The Affect Theory Reader (pp. 289-308). Durham: Duke University Press.

Tiryakian, E. A. (1995). Collective effervescence, social change and charisma: Durkheim, Weber and 1989. International Sociology, 10(3), 269-281. Doi: 10.1177/026858095010003002

Turner, B. (2003). Warrior charisma and the spiritualization of violence. Body & Society, 9(4), 93-108. Doi: 10.1177/135703403773684676

Turner, S. (2003). Charisma reconsidered. Journal of Classical Sociology, 3(1), 5-26. Doi: 10.1177/1468795X03003001692

Tzu, L. ([1891] 2006) The Tao Te Ching (Translated by James Legge). Gloucester: Dodo Press.

Varela, C. R. (2009). Science for Humanism. Oxon: Routledge.

Varga, I. (2005). The body - the new sacred? The body in hypermodernity. Current Sociology, 53(2), 209–235. Doi: 10.1177/0011392105049538

Wallis, R. (1982). The social construction of charisma. Social Compass, 29, 25-39. Doi: 10.1177/003776868202900102

Webb, S. (2009). How Brice Lee Changed the World. A&E Home Video.

Weber M. & Eisenstadt, S. N. (1968). Max Weber on Charisma and Institution Building. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Weber M. ([1920] 1965). The Sociology of Religion. London: Methuen.

Wetherell, M. (2015). Trends in the turn to affect: A social psychological critique. Body & Society, 21(2), 139–166. Doi: 10.1177/1357034X14539020

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.