Zombies were and still are one of the most important symbols of modern mass culture. The zombie discourse originated among African slaves brought to the sugar plantations in the Caribbean. In many ways, the narratives of the “living dead” were a reaction to the crisis phenomena of plantation life. This is evidenced by the rich comparative material presented on many peoples of the world. Such notions of invulnerability after formal death proved to be an important tool of resistance to new conditions caused by external threats. Termed “revitalization,” they were an important element of the Millennialist movements. While initially the sorcerers who could bring themselves back to life were central to these beliefs, in the following period the focus shifted to the victims of various manipulations, transformed into soulless beings. Leaving the environment of their original “habitat,” zombies took on a new life, occupying a firm place in modern mass culture. Having become a symbol of ruthless exploitation of man, relegated to the level of a machine appendage, zombies proved to be one of the most “productive” symbols. They reflected the main trends in the development of society and even began to function as instruments of philosophical reflection. All this allows us to consider zombies as an indicator of altered society, producing new “walking dead”. The metaphors associated with zombies allows us to conclude that the comprehension of zombies makes modern man begin to perceive them constructively, creating a new image, demonstrating the movement towards humanization.
Andersson, R.-H. (2008). The Lakota ghost dance of 1890. University of Nebraska Press.
Asimov, I. (2004). I, robot. Bantam Books.
Blouet, O. M. (2000). Bryan Edwards, F.R.S., 1743-1800. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 54(2), 215–222.
Brown, T. L. (2008). Making Truth: Metaphor in Science (1st edition). University of Illinois Press.
Bryan, E. (1806). The History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies (4Vols.). Printed and sold by James Humphreys.
Bykov, D. (2021, 22). Novaya Gazeta. V. P-Int. as a Mirror. https://novayagazeta.ru/articles/2021/11/19/pokolenie-p-in (In Russian)
Cohen, J. J. (2017). Grey: A Zombie Ecology. In S. J. Lauro (Ed.), Zombie Theory (pp. 381–394). University of Minnesota Press. doi: 10.5749/j.ctt1pwt6zr.29
Davies, S. B. (2007). Raising the Dead: The Xhosa Cattle-Killing and the Mhlakaza-Goliat Delusion. Journal of Southern African Studies, 33(1), 19–41. doi: 10.1080/03057070601136517
Deleuze, J., & Guattari, F. (2008). Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. U-Factoria. (In Russian)
Fehrle, J. (2016). “Zombies Don’t Recognize Borders”: Capitalism, Ecology, and Mobility in the Zombie Outbreak Narrative. Amerikastudien / American Studies, 61(4), 527–544.
Henson, S. L. A. (2002). Dead Bones Dancing: The Taki Onqoy, Archaism, and Crisis in Sixteenth Century Peru. East Tennessee State University.
Hillard, T. J. (2009). “Deep Into That Darkness Peering”: An Essay on Gothic Nature. Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment, 16(4), 685–695. https://doi.org/10.1093/isle/isp090
Kormann, C. (2021, October 12). The Mysterious Case of the COVID-19 Lab-Leak Theory. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/science/elements/the-mysterious-case-of-the-covid-19-lab-leak-theory
Kramer, J. (2021, June 5). What you need to know about the COVID-19 lab-leak hypothesis. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/what-you-need-to-know-about-the-covid-19-lab-leak-hypothesis
La Barre, W. (1970). The Ghost Dance: Origins of Religion. Doubleday.
Lauro, S. J., & Embry, K. (2008). A Zombie Manifesto: The Nonhuman Condition in the Era of Advanced Capitalism. Boundary 2, 35(1), 85–108. doi: 10.1215/01903659-2007-027
Lawton, G., & Marshall, M. (2021). Did covid-19 come from a lab? New Scientist, 250(3337), 10–11. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(21)00938-6
Lenin, V. I. (1958). Complete Works in 55 Volumes (Vol. 5). (In Russian)
Long, E. (1774). The History of Jamaica. Or, General survey of the antient and modern state of the island: : With reflections on its situation settlements, inhabitants, climate, products, commerce, laws, and government. In three volumes. Illustrated with copper plates (Vol. 2). Printed for T. Lowndes, in Fleet-Street.
Longfellow, H. (1868). The New-England tragedies. Ticknor and Fields.
Marly, or, A Planter’s Life in Jamaica. (1828). R. Griffin & Co.
Matheson, R. (2007). I am legend (2. Tor ed). Tor.
Maxmen, A., & Mallapaty, S. (2021). The COVID lab-leak hypothesis: What scientists do and don’t know. Nature, 594(7863), 313–315. doi: 10.1038/d41586-021-01529-3
Mayne Reid. (1862). The maroon (3Vols). Hurst and Blackett.
Mcglotten, S., & Vangundy, S. (2013). Zombie Porn 1.0: Or, Some Queer Things Zombie Sex Can Teach Us. Qui Parle, 21(2), 101–125. doi: 10.5250/quiparle.21.2.0101
Mintz, S. W. (1986). Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History (Reprint edition). Penguin Books.
Moles, A. (2014). The Zombie Paradigm: Question Everything. AQ: Australian Quarterly, 85(3), 3–6. JSTOR.
Mooney, J. (1896). The Ghost-dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890.
Morissette, J. J. (2013). Marxferatu: The Vampire Metaphor as a Tool for Teaching Marx’s Critique of Capitalism. PS: Political Science and Politics, 46(3), 637–642.
Mukherjee, U. P. (2010). Postcolonial environments: Nature, culture and the contemporary Indian novel in English. Palgrave Macmillan/Arts & Humanities Research Council. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10425011
Newbury, M. (2012). Fast Zombie/Slow Zombie: Food Writing, Horror Movies, and Agribusiness Apocalypse. American Literary History, 24(1), 87–114. JSTOR.
Newitz, A. (2006). Pretend We’re Dead: Capitalist Monsters in American Pop Culture. Duke University Press. doi: 10.1215/9780822387855
Oloff, K. (2012). ‘Greening’ The Zombie: Caribbean Gothic, World-Ecology, and Socio-Ecological Degradation. Green Letters, 16(1), 31–45. doi: 10.1080/14688417.2012.10589098
Proyas, A. (2004). I, Robot [Action film]. 20th Century Fox.
Sanders, R. (2017). Ghost in the Shell [Science fiction action film]. Paramount Pictures.
Sanford, M. (1974). Revitalization Movements as Indicators of Completed Acculturation. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 16(4), 504–518. doi: 10.1017/S001041750000757X
Shaviro, S. (2002). Capitalist Monsters. Historical Materialism, 10(4), 281–290. doi: 10.1163/15692060260474486
Shirō, M. (2017). The ghost in the shell. Glénat.
Shtorm, A. (2020, April 7). Coronavirus COVID-19: Accident or bioweapon? Pravda.Ru. https://www.pravda.ru/politics/1486840-biowar19/ In Russian)
St. John, Spencer, S. (1884). Hayti: Or, The Black Republic. Smith, Elder, & Company.
St. John, S. (1889). Hayti, or, the Black republic. Scribner & Welford.
Wallace, A. F. C. (1956). Revitalization Movements. American Anthropologist, 58(2), 264–281. doi: 10.1525/aa.1956.58.2.02a00040
Walvin, J. (1996). Questioning Slavery (1st edition). Routledge.
Walvin, J. (2018). Sugar: The world corrupted: from slavery to obesity (First Pegasus Books hardcover edition). Pegasus Books.
Webb, J., & Byrnand, S. (2017). Some Kind of Virus: In S. J. Lauro (Ed.), Zombie Theory (pp. 111–123). University of Minnesota Press. doi: 10.5749/j.ctt1pwt6zr.11
Yashlavsky, A. (2021, May 29). Chinese laboratory incriminated for creating coronavirus Moskovsky Komsomolets. https://www.mk.ru/science/2021/05/29/kitayskuyu-laboratoriyu-dokazatelno-obvinili-v-sozdanii-koronavirusa.html (In Russian)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.